Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Prev Med. 2024 May;182:107927 doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2024.107927.

This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the prevalence of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and, furthermore to compare it to that in immunocompetent controls.


A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases from January 2000 to February 2023, to identify studies investigating the prevalence of cervical hrHPV in KTRs. Pooled cervical hrHPV prevalences, odds ratios (ORs) comparing KTRs to controls and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random effects logistic regression models. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed through the I2 statistic, and the significance was evaluated by the Cochrane's Q test.


Altogether, 16 studies covering >1200 KTRs were included. The prevalence of cervical hrHPV in KTRs was 27.7% (95% CI 21.3-35.1) with substantial interstudy heterogeneity. Stratification indicated a higher prevalence in recent years (2019-2023) and in Asia (39% (95% CI 11.2-61.4)). The prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 in KTRs was 8.0% (95% CI 3.9-15.9) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.8-3.7), respectively. Comparing hrHPV prevalence in KTRs and controls based on six studies including >500 KTRs and 1000 controls, the OR for hrHPV was 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.6).


This meta-analysis establishes an increased cervical hrHPV prevalence in KTRs compared to controls. The increased risk may be associated with immunosuppressive therapy post-transplantation. Further research is needed to explore the potential benefits of HPV vaccination, including potential revaccination strategies in KTRs.

Publication type: Review, Systematic Review
Organ: Kidney
Language: English
MeSH terms: Kidney Transplantation