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  • Lin J
  • Selkirk EK
  • Siqueira I
  • Beaucage M
  • Carriere C
  • et al.

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is considered the optimal treatment for children with end-stage organ failure; however, increased efforts are needed to understand the gap surrounding equitable access to and health outcomes of SOT for Indigenous children. This scoping review summarizes the literature on the characteristics of access to and health outcomes of pediatric SOT among Indigenous children in the settler-colonial states of Canada, Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. A search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for studies matching preestablished eligibility criteria from inception to November 2021. A preliminary gray literature search was also conducted. Twenty-four studies published between 1996 and 2021 were included. Studies addressed Indigenous pediatric populations within the United States (n = 7), Canada (n = 6), Aotearoa New Zealand (n = 5), Australia (n = 5), and Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia combined (n = 1). Findings showed that Indigenous children experienced longer time on dialysis, lower rates of preemptive and living donor kidney transplantation, and disparities in patient and graft outcomes after kidney transplantation. There were mixed findings about access to liver transplantation for Indigenous children and comparable findings for graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation. Social determinants of health, such as geographic remoteness, lack of living donors, and traditional spiritual beliefs, may affect SOT access and outcomes for Indigenous children. Evidence gaps emphasize the need for action-based initiatives within SOT that prioritize research with and for Indigenous pediatric populations. Future research should include community-engaged methodologies, situated within local community contexts, to inform culturally safe care for Indigenous children.

  • Murphy MA
  • Annunziato RA
Pediatr Transplant. 2024 May;28(3):e14726 doi: 10.1111/petr.14726.
BACKGROUND:

Pediatric transplantation can be a stressful process for patients and caregivers. Some individuals may experience post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) as a result. Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been well-studied in this population, the purpose of the present scoping review is to provide a first synthesis of the existing literature on PTG in pediatric transplant populations.

METHODS:

We conducted a literature search of PsycINFO and Scopus in May 2023. Eligible articles must have included a sample of solid organ transplant (SOT) or stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients under age 18, siblings of recipients, or caregivers; and must have examined PTG.

RESULTS:

Twenty-three studies were identified, and nine studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review (n = 5 cross sectional; n = 4 qualitative). Cross-sectional studies examined demographic, mental health, and medical correlates of PTG in children and caregivers. PTG was correlated with PTSS among caregivers. Qualitative studies identified themes along each of the five factors of PTG.

CONCLUSION:

Findings overwhelmingly focused on caregiver PTG. Qualitative study findings align with the theoretical model of PTG. Additional research is needed to investigate PTG in siblings of children with a transplant and associations between PTG and medication adherence. This scoping review provides insight into positive change processes following a transplant among children and their caregivers.

  • Shieb M
  • Hasanain R
  • Arshad Z
  • Nawaz F
  • Kashyap R
  • et al.
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024 Apr 5; doi: 10.3345/cep.2023.01466.

Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. This systematic review aimed to pool global data from leading transplant institutions and identify the overall incidence, risk factors, and causative organisms of BSI in pediatric liver transplant recipients. A systematic review of the PubMed and OVID databases was conducted from 2000 to 2022. The initial search yielded 252 unique articles, which were independently reviewed by 2 authors. Articles that reported pediatric-specific data on BSI in isolated liver transplant patients were included, including the incidence of BSI, isolated organisms, and involved risk factors involved. This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42023403206). Fourteen articles from the United States, France, Iran, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand, and Turkey were included. A total of 4,812 liver transplants were included in the final analysis. The mean patient age was 25 months (age range, 0-18 years), and 50.9% were male. The overall incidence of BSI was 23.5% (range, 14.7%-55%). The most commonly reported organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus, Klebsiella spp., and Escherichia coli. Among the risk factors studied, postoperative biliary complications, a medical history of biliary atresia, and younger age were the risk factors most commonly associated with BSI. Bacterial BSI after pediatric liver transplantation occur at a high incidence, with a unique organism profile notable for a higher percentage of gram-negative organisms. Further studies are required to determine the most appropriate prophylactic and empirical antibiotic management strategies for this population.

  • Li W
  • Bokkers RPH
  • Dierckx RAJO
  • Verkade HJ
  • Sanders DH
  • et al.
Liver Transpl. 2024 Feb 1;30(2):160-169 doi: 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000257.

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and hepatic artery stenosis (HAS) after pediatric liver transplantation. We systematically reviewed studies published since 2000 that investigated the management of HAT and/or HAS after pediatric liver transplantation. Studies with a minimum of 5 patients in one of the treatment methods were included. The primary outcomes were technical success rate and graft and patient survival. The secondary outcomes were hepatic artery patency, complications, and incidence of HAT and HAS. Of 3570 studies, we included 19 studies with 328 patients. The incidence was 6.2% for HAT and 4.1% for HAS. Patients with an early HAT treated with surgical revascularization had a median graft survival of 45.7% (interquartile range, 30.7%-60%) and a patient survival of 61.3% (interquartile range, 58.7%-66.9%) compared with the other treatments (conservative, endovascular revascularization, or retransplantation). As for HAS, endovascular and surgical revascularization groups had a patient survival of 85.7% and 100% (interquartile range, 85%-100%), respectively. Despite various treatment methods, HAT after pediatric liver transplantation remains a significant issue that has profound effects on the patient and graft survival. Current evidence is insufficient to determine the most effective treatment for preventing graft failure.

  • Sha M
  • Zong ZP
  • Shen C
  • Zhu JJ
  • Feng MX
  • et al.
Hepatol Int. 2023 Dec;17(6):1587-1595 doi: 10.1007/s12072-022-10471-z.
PURPOSE:

The meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of pure laparoscopic left lateral hepatectomy in comparison with open approach for pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

METHODS:

A systemic literature survey was performed by searching the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for articles that compared pure laparoscopic left lateral living donor hepatectomy (LLDH) and open left lateral living donor hepatectomy (OLDH) by November 2021. Meta-analysis was performed to assess donors' and recipients' perioperative outcomes using RevMan 5.3 software.

RESULTS:

A total of five studies involving 432 patients were included in the analysis. The results demonstrated that LLDH group had significantly less blood loss (WMD = -99.28 ml, 95%CI -152.68 to -45.88, p = 0.0003) and shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -2.71d, 95%CI -3.78 to -1.64, p < 0.00001) compared with OLDH group. A reduced donor overall postoperative complication rate was observed in the LLDH group (OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.13-0.64, p = 0.002). In the subgroup analysis, donor bile leakage, wound infection and pulmonary complications were similar between two groups (bile leakage: OR = 1.31, 95%CI 0.43-4.02, p = 0.63; wound infection: OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.10-1.41, p = 0.15; pulmonary complications: OR = 0.24, 95%CI 0.04-1.41, p = 0.11). For recipients, there were no significant difference in perioperative outcomes between the LLDH and OLDH group, including mortality, overall complications, hepatic artery thrombosis, portal vein and biliary complications.

CONCLUSION:

LLDH is a safe and effective alternative to OLDH for pediatric LDLT, reducing invasiveness and benefiting postoperative recovery. Future large-scale multi-center studies are expected to confirm the advantages of LLDH in pediatric LDLT.

  • Bai J
  • Yin X
  • Li J
  • Li JQ
  • Niu Y
  • et al.
Clin Transplant. 2023 Nov;37(11):e15119 doi: 10.1111/ctr.15119.
BACKGROUND:

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the most prevalent acquired kidney disease leading to end-stage renal disease in children and has a propensity for recurring in the transplanted kidney. The recurrence of FSGS after kidney transplantation in children varies greatly. In addition, the risk factors and outcomes of recurrence of FSGS remain controversial. This study evaluated the recurrence rate, risk factors, and prognosis of FSGS after kidney transplantation in order to provide advice and assistance in clinical decision-making for pediatric kidney transplantation.

METHODS:

PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and other databases were searched from the establishment of the repository to March 2022. We extracted data on incidence, risk factors, and outcomes.

RESULTS:

The results showed that the recurrence rate of primary FSGS in children after renal transplantation was 48% (95% CI 36%-59%) and the recurrence rate of FSGS (all forms) was 35% (95% CI 17%-52%). The graft loss rate of primary FSGS in children after kidney transplantation was 29% (95% CI 17%-42%) and the graft loss rate of FSGS (all forms) was 29% (95% CI 4%-62%). 57% (95% CI 42%-73%) of pediatric patients with recurrent primary FSGS showed complete remission. Risk factor analyses showed that age of onset (SMD .69, 95% CI .20-1.19, p = .006) was related to the recurrence of primary FSGS, whereas the living related donor was not a risk factor for recurrent primary FSGS in pediatrics after kidney transplantation (OR 1.22, 95% CI .48-3.10, p = .674).

CONCLUSIONS:

The recurrence rate and graft loss rate of FSGS in children after kidney transplantation were relatively high. Age at onset was associated with a risk for recurrent primary FSGS, whereas the living related donor was not a risk factor for recurrent FSGS in pediatric kidney recipients.

  • Piché-Renaud PP
  • Yue Lee E
  • Ji C
  • Qing Huang JY
  • Uleryk E
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2023 Nov;23(11):1757-1770 doi: 10.1016/j.ajt.2023.06.008.

This study aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the immunogenicity, safety, and effectiveness of live-attenuated varicella vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients. Medline and EMBASE were searched using predefined search terms to identify relevant studies. The included articles reported varicella vaccine administration in the posttransplant period in children and adults. A pooled proportion of transplant recipients who seroconverted and who developed vaccine-strain varicella and varicella disease was generated. Eighteen articles (14 observational studies and 4 case reports) were included, reporting on 711 transplant recipients who received the varicella vaccine. The pooled proportion was 88.2% (95% confidence interval 78.0%-96.0%, 13 studies) for vaccinees who seroconverted, 0% (0%-1.2%, 13 studies) for vaccine-strain varicella, and 0.8% (0%-4.9%, 9 studies) for varicella disease. Most studies followed clinical guidelines for administering live-attenuated vaccines, with criteria that could include being at least 1 year posttransplant, 2 months postrejection episode, and on low-dose immunosuppressive medications. Varicella vaccination in transplant recipients was overall safe in the included studies, with few cases of vaccine-strain-induced varicella or vaccine failure, and although it was immunogenic, the proportion of recipients who seroconverted was lower than that seen in the general population. Our data support varicella vaccination in select pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  • Prudhomme T
  • Mesnard B
  • Abbo O
  • Banuelos B
  • Territo A
  • et al.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2023 Aug 1;28(4):297-308 doi: 10.1097/MOT.0000000000001074.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Kidney transplantation in low-weight recipients (<15 kg) is a challenging surgery with special characteristics. We proposed to perform a systematic review to determine the postoperative complication rate and the type of complications after kidney transplantation in low-weight recipients (<15 kg). The secondary objectives were to determine graft survival, functional outcomes, and patient survival after kidney transplantation in low-weight recipients.

METHODS:

A systematic review was performed according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Medline and Embase databases were searched to identify all studies reporting outcomes on kidney transplantation in low-weight recipients (<15 kg).

RESULTS:

A total of 1254 patients in 23 studies were included. The median postoperative complications rate was 20.0%, while 87.5% of those were major complications (Clavien ≥3). Further, urological and vascular complications rates were 6.3% (2.0-11.9) and 5.0% (3.0-10.0), whereas the rate of venous thrombosis ranged from 0 to 5.6%. Median 10-year graft and patient survival were 76 and 91.0%.

SUMMARY:

Kidney transplantation in low-weight recipients is a challenging procedure complicated by a high rate of morbidity. Finally, pediatric kidney transplantation should be performed in centers with expertise and multidisciplinary pediatric teams.

  • Emmanouilidou-Fotoulaki E
  • Karava V
  • Dotis J
  • Kondou A
  • Printza N
Vaccines (Basel). 2023 Jun 9;11(6) doi: 10.3390/vaccines11061080.

The pediatric population is at a lower risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to adults. Nevertheless, immunosuppression in pediatric and adolescent kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) increases their hazard compared to the general population. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and determines the risk factors of no seroconversion in this population. PubMed-MEDLINE databases were searched for cohort studies. A meta-analysis was performed using fixed and random effect models. In total, seven studies including 254 patients were further analyzed. The random effect model demonstrated a 63% seroconversion rate (95% CI 0.5, 0.76) following a two-dose schedule, which increased to 85% (95% CI 0.76, 0.93) after the third dose administration. Seropositivity was lower in patients under mycophenolate mofetil compared to azathioprine (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.43). Rituximab administration decreased the seroconversion rate (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03, 0.43). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 9.25 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower (95% CI 16.37, 2.13) in patients with no seroconversion. The seroconversion rate was lower in vaccinated compared to infected patients (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02, 0.72). In conclusion, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric and adolescent KTRs elicits a humoral response, and a third dose is advised. Previous rituximab administration, antimetabolite therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and lower GFR reduce the likelihood for seroconversion.

  • Rea KE
  • West KB
  • Dorste A
  • Christofferson ES
  • Lefkowitz D
  • et al.
Pediatr Transplant. 2023 Feb;27(1):e14418 doi: 10.1111/petr.14418.
BACKGROUND:

Equitable access to pediatric organ transplantation is critical, although risk factors negatively impacting pre- and post-transplant outcomes remain. No synthesis of the literature on SDoH within the pediatric organ transplant population has been conducted; thus, the current systematic review summarizes findings to date assessing SDoH in the evaluation, listing, and post-transplant periods.

METHODS:

Literature searches were conducted in Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases.

RESULTS:

Ninety-three studies were included based on pre-established criteria and were reviewed for main findings and study quality. Findings consistently demonstrated disparities in key transplant outcomes based on racial or ethnic identity, including timing and likelihood of transplant, and rates of rejection, graft failure, and mortality. Although less frequently assessed, variations in outcomes based on geography were also noted, while findings related to insurance or SES were inconsistent.

CONCLUSION:

This review underscores the persistence of SDoH and disparity in equitable transplant outcomes and discusses the importance of individual and systems-level change to reduce such disparities.