Transplant Library
5,115 results
Highlighted Expert Reviews
Transpl Infect Dis. 2023 Feb;25(1):e14000 doi: 10.1111/tid.14000.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023 Jan 1;34(1):145-159 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2022040454.
J Nephrol. 2023 Mar;36(2):537-550 doi: 10.1007/s40620-022-01458-y.
  • Kast S
  • Jakob F
  • Kohl M
  • von Stengel S
  • Kerschan-Schindl K
  • et al.
Rheumatol Adv Pract. 2023 Feb 6;7(1):rkad019 doi: 10.1093/rap/rkad019.
OBJECTIVES:

Due to their pronounced anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in inflammatory conditions and organ transplants. Unfortunately, GC-induced osteoporosis is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of exercise added to GC therapy on BMD at the lumbar spine or femoral neck in people on GC therapy.

METHODS:

A systematic literature search of five electronic databases included controlled trials with a duration of >6 months and at least two study arms [glucocorticoids (GCs) and GCs and exercise (GC + EX)] were conducted up to 20 September 2022. Studies involving other pharmaceutical therapies with relevant effects on bone metabolism were excluded. We applied the inverse heterogeneity model. Outcome measures were standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs for BMD changes at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN).

RESULTS:

We identified three eligible trials with a total of 62 participants. In summary, the GC + EX intervention indicated statistically significantly higher SMDs for LS-BMD [SMD 1.50 (95% CI 0.23, 2.77)] but not for FN-BMD [0.64 (95% CI -0.89, 2.17)] compared with GC treatment alone. We observed substantial heterogeneity (LS-BMD I 2 = 71%, FN-BMD I 2 = 78%) between the study results.

CONCLUSION:

Although more well-designed exercise studies are needed to address the issue of exercise effects on GC-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in more detail, upcoming guidelines should pay more attention to the aspect of exercise for bone strengthening in GIOP.

REGISTRATION NUMBER:

PROSPERO: CRD42022308155.

  • Bueno-Lledó J
  • Rubio-Pérez I
  • Moreno-Gijón M
  • Olona-Casas C
  • Barbosa E
  • et al.
Surgery. 2023 Apr;173(4):1052-1059 doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2022.11.033.
BACKGROUND:

Surgical site occurrences pose a threat to patient health, potentially resulting in significant increases in health care spending caused by using additional resources. The objective of this study was to reach a consensus among a group of experts in incisional negative pressure wound therapy to determine the indications for using this type of treatment prophylactically and to analyze the associated risk factors of surgical site occurrences in abdominal surgery.

METHODS:

A group of experts in incisional negative pressure wound therapy from Spain and Portugal was formed among general surgery specialists who frequently perform colorectal, esophagogastric, or abdominal wall surgery. The Coordinating Committee performed a bibliographic search to identify the most relevant publications and to create a summary table to serve as a decision-making protocol regarding the use of prophylactic incisional negative pressure wound therapy based on factors related to the patient and type of procedure.

RESULTS:

The patient risk factors associated with surgical site occurrence development such as age, immunosuppression, anticoagulation, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, diabetes, obesity, and malnutrition were analyzed. For surgical procedure factors, surgical time, repeated surgeries, organ transplantation, need for blood transfusion, complex abdominal wall reconstruction, surgery at a contaminated site, open abdomen closure, emergency surgery, and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy were analyzed.

CONCLUSION:

In our experience, this consensus has been achieved on a tailored set of recommendations on patient and surgical aspects that should be considered to reduce the risk of surgical site occurrences with the use of prophylactic incisional negative pressure wound therapy, particularly in areas where the evidence base is controversial or lacking.

  • Giovinazzo F
  • Vaccaro A
  • Pascale MM
  • Cardella F
  • Frongillo F
  • et al.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Feb;27(4):1695-1707 doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202302_31413.
OBJECTIVE:

Data on mortality, immunosuppression, and vaccination role regarding liver transplant (LT) recipients affected by COVID-19 are still under debate. This study aims to identify risk factors for mortality and the role of immunosuppression in COVID-19 LT recipients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A systematic review of SARS-CoV-2 infection in LT recipients was performed. The primary outcomes were risk factors for mortality, the role of immunosuppression and vaccination. A meta-analysis was not performed as there was a different metric of the same outcome (mortality) and a lack of a control group in most studies.

RESULTS:

Overall, 1,343 LT recipients of 1,810 SOT were included, and data on mortality were available for 1,110 liver transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mortality ranged between 0-37%. Risk factors of mortality were age >60 years, Mofetil (MMF) use, extra-hepatic solid tumour, Charlson Comorbidity Index, male sex, dyspnoea at diagnosis, higher baseline serum creatinine, congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, BMI >30. Only 51% of 233 LT patients presented a positive response after vaccination, and older age (>65y) and MMF use were associated with lower antibodies. Tacrolimus (TAC) was identified as a protective factor for mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Liver transplant patients present additional risk factors of mortality related to immunosuppression. Immunosuppression role in the progression to severe infection and mortality may correlate with different drugs. Moreover, fully vaccinated patients have a lower risk of developing severe COVID-19. The present research suggests safely using TAC and reducing MMF use during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Nguyen B
  • Acharya C
  • Tangpanithandee S
  • Miao J
  • Krisanapan P
  • et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Feb 16;24(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms24043977.

Patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), including Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSP), who present with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) have a poor prognosis despite aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. The utility of plasmapheresis/plasma exchange (PLEX) for IgAN/HSP is not well established. This systematic review aims to assess the efficacy of PLEX for IgAN and HSP patients with RPGN. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and through Cochrane Database from inception through September 2022. Studies that reported outcomes of PLEX in IgAN or HSP patients with RPGN were enrolled. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42022356411). The researchers systematically reviewed 38 articles (29 case reports and 9 case series articles) with a total of 102 RPGN patients (64 (62.8%) had IgAN and 38 (37.2%) had HSP). The mean age was 25 years and 69% were males. There was no specific PLEX regimen utilized in these studies, but most patients received at least 3 PLEX sessions that were titrated based on the patient's response/kidney recovery. The number of PLEX sessions ranged from 3 to 18, and patients additionally received steroids and immunosuppressive treatment (61.6% of patients received cyclophosphamide). Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 120 months, with the majority being followed for at least 2 months after PLEX. Among IgAN patients treated with PLEX, 42.1% (n = 27/64) achieved remission; 20.3% (n = 13/64) achieved complete remission (CR) and 18.7% (n = 12/64) partial remission (PR). 60.9% (n = 39/64) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Among HSP patients treated with PLEX, 76.3% (n = 29/38) achieved remission; of these, 68.4% (n = 26/38) achieved CR and 7.8% achieved (n = 3/38) PR. 23.6% (n = 9/38) progressed to ESKD. Among kidney transplant patients, 20% (n = 1/5) achieved remission and 80% (n = 4/5) progressed to ESKD. Adjunctive plasmapheresis/plasma exchange with immunosuppressive therapy showed benefits in some HSP patients with RPGN and possible benefits in IgAN patients with RPGN. Future prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical studies are needed to corroborate this systematic review's findings.

  • Park JI
  • Song GW
  • Ryu JH
  • Choi ST
  • Choi NG
  • et al.
Transplant Proc. 2023 Feb 21; doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2023.01.013.
BACKGROUND:

Mycophenolate mofetil exhibits pharmacologic mechanisms different from calcineurin inhibitors. Therefore, the dose of calcineurin inhibitors can be reduced along with side effects for effective immunosuppression. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus and corticosteroid in combination with or without mycophenolate mofetil in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).

METHODS:

A randomized, open-label, comparative, multicenter, phase IV study was conducted with 119 patients from January 2014 to September 2017. In the full analysis set population, 58 and 59 patients were included in the study group (triple-drug regimen: TacroBell + My-rept + corticosteroid) and the control group (dual-drug regimen: TacroBell + corticosteroid), respectively. In the per protocol set population, 49 and 42 patients were included in the study and control groups, respectively.

RESULTS:

In the full analysis set population, the incidence of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection (rejection activity index score ≥4) was 3.4% in the study group; however, this finding was not observed in the control group (P = .468). Hepatitis B virus recurrence was observed in one patient in the control group. No cases of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection and HBV recurrence were observed in the per protocol set population. The incidences of serious adverse events were 25.9% and 18.0% in the study and control groups, respectively; however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P = .376).

CONCLUSION:

Although the study involved a small number of patients, the triple-drug regimen can be considered safe and effective for immunosuppression after living donor liver transplantation in patients infected with HBV.

  • Sugawara T
  • Franco SR
  • Ishida J
  • Kalra A
  • Saben JL
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2023 Mar;23(3):429-436 doi: 10.1016/j.ajt.2022.11.024.

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients are known to carry an increased risk of malignancy because of long-term immunosuppression. However, the progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN) in this population remains unclear. We performed a systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar. All studies containing IPMNs in solid organ transplantation recipients were screened. We included 11 studies in our final analysis, totaling 274 patients with IPMNs of the 8213 SOT recipients. The prevalence from 8 studies was 4.7% (95% CI 2.4%-7.7%) in a random-effects model with median study periods of 24 to 220 months. The median rate for all progressions from 10 studies was 20% (range, 0%-88%) within 13 to 41 months of the median follow-up time. By utilizing the results of 3 case-control studies, the relative risk from a random-effects model for progression (worrisome features and high-risk stigmata) of IPMNs was 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.31). No adenocarcinoma derived from IPMN was reported in the included studies. Overall, this study indicates that the progression of pretransplant IPMN does not increase drastically compared with the general nontransplant population. However, considering the limited literature, further studies are required for confirmation.

  • Elgenidy A
  • Shemies RS
  • Atef M
  • Awad AK
  • El-Leithy HH
  • et al.
J Nephrol. 2023 Mar;36(2):537-550 doi: 10.1007/s40620-022-01458-y.
CET Conclusion
Reviewer: Mr Simon Knight, Centre for Evidence in Transplantation, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences University of Oxford
Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the role of continued immunosuppression in the patient with a failed kidney transplant. The authors identified 10 studies including 1,187 patients. There was no difference in overall survival, sensitisation, malignancy, infection or retransplant rates between patients who withdrew immunosuppression early or remained on maintenance immunosuppression. Review methodology appears good, with independent reference screening and searches across multiple databases. The majority of studies were retrospective cohorts with a risk of selection bias. Many meta-analyses included only 2 or 3 studies, with quite wide confidence intervals around estimated effect sizes and some degree of heterogeneity. It is possible, therefore, that a true effect could have been missed due to selection bias or lack of power.
Study Details
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether early or late withdrawal of maintenance immunosuppression in patients with kidney transplant failure is linked with better outcomes.
Interventions: Electronic databases including PubMed, WOS, Ovid, and Scopus databases were searched. Titles and abstracts were screened for eligiblity by four independent reviewers. Data extraction was conducted by two independent reviewers. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies.
Participants: 10 studies were included in the review.
Outcomes: The outcomes of interest were incidence of infection, cancer, mortality (infection-related, malignancy-related, cardiovascular-related), transplant nephrectomy, re-transplantation, panel reactive antibody (PRA) and admission to hospital.
Follow Up: N/A
INTRODUCTION:

Prolonged immunosuppression after dialysis start has been assumed to reduce sensitization, need for graft nephrectomy, and to favor re-transplantation. In contrast, immunosuppression is considered to increase the risk of mortality, infection, and malignancy. We aimed to assess the evidence regarding superiority of early or late withdrawal of maintenance immunosuppression post renal transplant failure.

METHODS:

A literature search of the PubMed, WOS, Ovid, and Scopus databases was conducted. Combined relative risks, (RRs), mean differences, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using a random-effect model.

RESULTS:

Ten studies involving 1187 patients with kidney transplant failure were included. No difference could be detected between patients with early withdrawal of  immunosuppressive drugs (≤ 3 months) or prolonged immunosuppressive treatment (> 3 months) regarding mortality (95% CI 0.91-2.28), panel reactive antibodies (PRAs) (95% CI - 0.75-30.10), re-transplantation rate (95% CI 0.55-1.35), infectious episodes (95% CI 0.67, 1.17), cancer (95% CI 0.26-1.54), and graft nephrectomy (95% CI 0.82-1.63). Similarly, no difference was found between immunosuppressive drug withdrawal over < 6 or ≥ 6 months regarding mortality (95% CI 0.16, 2.89), re-transplantation rate (95% CI 0.85-1.55), cancer (95% CI 0.37-1.63), and allograft nephrectomy (95% CI 0.87-4.33).

CONCLUSION:

Prolonged maintenance immunosuppression post kidney transplant failure is not associated with increased risk of mortality, infection, or malignancy, or reduced risk of sensitization or allograft nephrectomy compared with early withdrawal.

  • Raina R
  • Shah R
  • Marks SD
  • Johnson JN
  • Nied M
  • et al.
Pediatr Transplant. 2023 Mar 6;e14490 doi: 10.1111/petr.14490.
BACKGROUND:

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and corresponding acute respiratory syndrome have affected all populations and led to millions of deaths worldwide. The pandemic disproportionately affected immunocompromised and immunosuppressed adult patients who had received solid organ transplants (SOTs). With the onset of the pandemic, transplant societies across the world recommended reducing SOT activities to avoid exposing immunosuppressed recipients. Due to the risk of COVID-19-related outcomes, SOT providers adapted the way they deliver care to their patients, leading to a reliance on telehealth. Telehealth has helped organ transplant programs continue treatment regimens while protecting patients and physicians from COVID-19 transmission. This review highlights the adverse effects of COVID-19 on transplant activities and summarizes the increased role of telehealth in the management of solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) in both pediatric and adult populations.

METHODS:

A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to accentuate the outcomes of COVID-19 and analyze the efficacy of telehealth on transplant activities. This in-depth examination summarizes extensive data on the clinical detriments of COVID-19 in transplant recipients, advantages, disadvantages, patient/physician perspectives, and effectiveness in transplant treatment plans via telehealth.

RESULTS:

COVID-19 has caused an increase in mortality, morbidity, hospitalization, and ICU admission in SOTRs. Telehealth efficacy and benefits to both patients and physicians have increasingly been reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

Developing effective systems of telehealth delivery has become a top priority for healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is necessary to validate the effectiveness of telehealth in other settings.

  • Cholongitas E
  • Burra P
  • Vourli G
  • Papatheodoridis GV
Clin Transplant. 2023 Mar 7;e14957 doi: 10.1111/ctr.14957.
INTRODUCTION:

Everolimus, a selective inhibitor of mamalian target of rapamycin (mTORi), is considered to be an alternative immunosuppressive regimen in the liver transplantation (LT) setting. However, most of the transplant centers avoid its early use (i.e., during the first month) after LT mainly due to safety issues.

METHODS:

We searched for all articles published between 01/2010 and 7/2022 to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of initial/early administration of everolimus after LT.

RESULTS:

Seven studies (three randomized controlled trials and four prospective cohort studies) were included: initial/early everolimus-including therapy (group 1) was used in 512 (51%) and calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) based therapy (group 2) in 494 (49%) patients. No significant difference was found between group 1 and group 2 patients regarding the rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% CI: .67-2.41, p = .465) and hepatic artery thrombosis (OR: .43, 95% CI: .09-2.02, p = .289). Everolimus was associated with higher rates of dyslipidemia (14.2% vs. 6.8%, p = .005) and incisional hernia (29.2% vs. 10.1%, p < .001). Finally, no difference was found between the two groups regarding recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (Risk Rates [RR]: 1.22 95%CI: .66-2.29, p = .524) and mortality (RR: .85 95%CI: .48-1.50, p = .570).

CONCLUSION:

Use of initial/early everolimus seems to be effective with a satisfactory safety profile, making its administration a reasonable therapeutic option in the LT setting.

  • Gkoufa A
  • Lekakis V
  • Papatheodoridis G
  • Cholongitas E
Pol Arch Intern Med. 2023 Mar 6; doi: 10.20452/pamw.16455.
INTRODUCTION:

Although it is well established that two doses of COVID-19 vaccines are associated with reduced immune responses in liver transplant recipients [LTRs], studies regarding their immunogenicity and tolerability after a booster dose are limited.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to review the available literature data regarding antibody responses and safety of the third dose of COVID-19 vaccines in LTRs.

METHODS:

We searched PubMed for eligible studies. The primary outcome was to compare the rates of seroconversion after the second and third COVID-19 vaccine dose in LTRs. Meta-analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and the Clopper and Pearson method was used to calculate the two-sided confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS:

 Six prospective studies involving 596 LTRs met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of antibody response before the third dose was 71% (95%CI:56-83%; heterogeneity: I2=90%, p<0.001), while after the third dose was 94% (95%CI:91-96%; heterogeneity: I2=17%, p=0.31). There was no difference in antibody responses after the third dose in relation to the use, or not, of calcineurin inhibitors (p=0.44) or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (p=0.33), while the pooled rate of antibody responses in those under mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was 88% (95%CI:83-92%; heterogeneity: I2=0%, p=0.57), significantly lower (p<0.001), compared to those under MMF-free immunosuppression [pooled rate:97%, 95%CI:95-98%; heterogeneity: I2=30%, p=0.22]. No safety concerns of the booster dose were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the third dose of COVID-19 vaccines induced adequate humoral and cellular immune responses in LTRs, while MMF remained a negative predictor of immunological responses.