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  • Combs MP
  • Belloli EA
  • Gargurevich N
  • Flaherty KR
  • Murray S
  • et al.
J Heart Lung Transplant. 2024 May 23; doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2024.05.013.

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the leading long-term cause of poor outcomes after transplant and manifests by fibrotic remodeling of small airways and/or pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. This study evaluated the effect of pirfenidone on quantitative radiographic and pulmonary function assessment in patients with CLAD.


We performed a single-center, 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pirfenidone in patients with CLAD. Randomization was stratified by CLAD phenotype. The primary outcome for this study was change in radiographic assessment of small airways disease, quantified as percentage of lung volume using parametric response mapping analysis of computed tomography scans (PRMfSAD); secondary outcomes included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), change in forced vital capacity (FVC), and change in radiographic quantification of parenchymal disease (PRMPD). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the treatment effect on outcome measures.


The goal enrollment of 60 patients was not met due to the coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic, with 23 patients included in the analysis. There was no significant difference over the study period between the pirfenidone vs placebo groups with regards to the observed change in PRMfSAD (+4.2% vs -0.4%; p = 0.22), FEV1 (-3.5% vs -3.6%; p = 0.97), FVC (-1.9% vs -4.6%; p = 0.41), or PRMPD (-0.6% vs -2.5%; p = 0.30). The study treatment tolerance and adverse events were generally similar between the pirfenidone and placebo groups.


Pirfenidone had no apparent impact on radiographic evidence of allograft dysfunction or pulmonary function decline in a single-center randomized trial of CLAD patients that did not meet enrollment goals but had an acceptable tolerance and side-effect profile.

  • Milosh B
  • Bugaighis M
  • Cervia J
J Investig Med. 2024 May 22;10815589241252595 doi: 10.1177/10815589241252595.

Advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, including combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), have transformed HIV into a chronic condition. Kidney diseases cause morbidity and mortality in patients living with HIV (PLWH), though cART has permitted kidney transplants with acceptable post-transplant graft and patient survival. Risk of allograft rejection remains high, which may be related to interactions between cART, specifically protease inhibitors (PI), and immunosuppressants prescribed post-transplant. This systematic review evaluates renal transplant outcomes in PLWH treated with PI- vs non-PI-based cART. A search strategy was generated with terms related to renal transplant, HIV, and cART and run on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane. Studies were evaluated using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines on Covidence by two reviewers and then evaluated for bias. Of 803 studies, 9 were included. Included papers were prospective or retrospective cohort studies or chart reviews of adult patients. Outcome measures included acute graft rejection, graft survival, and patient survival. One study had significant results demonstrating that PI-based therapy was correlated with increased graft rejection rates. Two studies demonstrated significant graft survival benefit to non-PI-based therapy, while one demonstrated significant benefit to PI-based therapy. Two studies found significant patient survival benefit to non-PI-based therapy. For each outcome measure, remaining data suggested improved outcomes with non-PI-based therapies without achieving statistical significance. The results demonstrate superior outcomes in PLWH taking non-PI-based cART, though the paucity of significant results suggests that PLWH who require PI-based cART for virological control may continue their regimen safely post-kidney transplant.

  • Lin J
  • Selkirk EK
  • Siqueira I
  • Beaucage M
  • Carriere C
  • et al.

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is considered the optimal treatment for children with end-stage organ failure; however, increased efforts are needed to understand the gap surrounding equitable access to and health outcomes of SOT for Indigenous children. This scoping review summarizes the literature on the characteristics of access to and health outcomes of pediatric SOT among Indigenous children in the settler-colonial states of Canada, Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. A search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for studies matching preestablished eligibility criteria from inception to November 2021. A preliminary gray literature search was also conducted. Twenty-four studies published between 1996 and 2021 were included. Studies addressed Indigenous pediatric populations within the United States (n = 7), Canada (n = 6), Aotearoa New Zealand (n = 5), Australia (n = 5), and Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia combined (n = 1). Findings showed that Indigenous children experienced longer time on dialysis, lower rates of preemptive and living donor kidney transplantation, and disparities in patient and graft outcomes after kidney transplantation. There were mixed findings about access to liver transplantation for Indigenous children and comparable findings for graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation. Social determinants of health, such as geographic remoteness, lack of living donors, and traditional spiritual beliefs, may affect SOT access and outcomes for Indigenous children. Evidence gaps emphasize the need for action-based initiatives within SOT that prioritize research with and for Indigenous pediatric populations. Future research should include community-engaged methodologies, situated within local community contexts, to inform culturally safe care for Indigenous children.

  • Mreyoud H
  • Walter K
  • Wilpula E
  • Park JM
Pharmacotherapy. 2024 May 21; doi: 10.1002/phar.2928.

Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used for the treatment of diabetes and for their cardiovascular and kidney benefits in patients with or without diabetes. Use in solid organ transplant recipients is controversial because transplant recipients were excluded from the major clinical trials assessing SGLT2 inhibitors. The goal of this review was to assess the available literature regarding the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in solid organ transplant recipients. A PubMed search was conducted for studies published in English through December 31, 2023. Studies were excluded if they were meta-analyses, review articles, commentaries, single case reports, or in vitro studies, or did not involve the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in solid organ transplant recipients with a diabetic, cardiovascular, or kidney outcome being assessed. In the final review, 20 studies were included: kidney (n = 15), heart (n = 4), and liver/lung/kidney (n = 1) transplant recipients. SGLT2 inhibitors had similar A1c reduction efficacy and were found to be weight neutral with possible weight reduction effects. Cardiovascular and kidney outcomes were not adequately assessed in the available studies. Adverse effects were reported to occur at a similar rate in transplant recipients compared to the general population. SGLT2 inhibitors were initiated ≥1-year post-transplant in most transplant recipients included in these studies. The overall safety and antihyperglycemic efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in kidney and heart transplant recipients is similar to the general population. Data assessing SGLT2 inhibitors use in solid organ transplant recipients for longer durations are needed.

  • Haberal HB
  • Donmez MI
  • Piana A
  • Pecoraro A
  • Prudhomme T
  • et al.
Int Urol Nephrol. 2024 May 21; doi: 10.1007/s11255-024-04079-5.

Patients with lower urinary tract malformations (LUTM) were suspended from kidney transplantation (KT) programs in the past due to various concerns. Consequently, only a limited number of studies have explored this topic at hand. In this study, our objective was to perform a systematic review (SR) to evaluate the current evidence regarding KT outcomes as well as patient survival (PS), postoperative complications and urinary tract infections (UTI) in individuals with childhood LUTM.


The search encompassed databases of Web of Science, Medline (via PubMed), and Embase (via Scopus) to identify all studies reporting outcomes on KT for patients with LUTM. The research included articles published in English from January 1995 till September 2023.


Of the 2634 yielded articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria, enrolling a total of 284,866 KT patients. There was significantly better 5-year graft survival (GS) in recipients with LUTM compared to the control group (RR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06); while GS at 1-year and 10-year, and PS at 1-year, 5-year and 10-year were similar between groups. On the other hand, the postoperative UTI rate was significantly higher in the LUTM group (RR: 4.46; 95% CI 1.89-10.51). However, data on serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate on follow-up were insufficient.


GS and PS rates appear to be similar in patients with childhood LUTM and those with normal lower urinary tract functions. Despite a higher postoperative UTI rate within this patient group, it appears that this has no effect on GS rates.

  • Liu J
  • Zhang G
  • Yang L
  • Yan D
  • Yu J
  • et al.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2024 May 20;50(7):108427 doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2024.108427.

Salvage liver transplantation (SLT) is an effective treatment option for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (rHCC) following primary curative treatment (CUR). However, its efficacy remains controversial compared to that of CURs, including repeat liver resection (RLR) and local ablation. This meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of these procedures.


A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for studies investigating SLT and CUR was performed. Outcome data, including overall and disease-free survival, tumor response, and operative and postoperative outcomes, were independently extracted and analyzed by two authors using a standardized protocol.


Fifteen cohort studies comprising 508 and 2050 patients with rHCC, who underwent SLT or CUR, respectively, were included. SLT achieved significantly longer overall survival than both CUR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-0.68; I2 = 34.6 %, p = 0.105) and RLR (HR: 0.64, 95 % CI: 0.49-0.84; I2 = 0.0 %, p = 0.639). Similar significantly better survival benefits were observed compared with CUR (HR: 0.30, 95 % CI: 0.20-0.45; I2 = 51.1 %, p = 0.038) or RLR (HR: 0.31, 95 % CI: 0.18-0.56; I2 = 65.7 %, p = 0.005) regarding disease-free survival. However, SLT resulted in a longer operative duration and hospital stay, larger amount of blood loss, higher rate of transfusion and postoperative morbidity, and slightly higher postoperative mortality than CUR.


SLT was associated with better long-term survival than CUR or RLR in patients with rHCC after primary curative treatment.

  • Yang L
  • Zhu L
  • Qi B
  • Zhang Y
  • Ni C
  • et al.
Int J Surg. 2024 May 20; doi: 10.1097/JS9.0000000000001669.

Previous studies have shown a protective effect of dexmedetomidine use in kidney transplantation. In contrast, it is not known whether intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine can reduce early allograft dysfunction incidence following liver transplantation.


To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine use during surgery on early allograft dysfunction following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).


This is a single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. 330 adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were enrolled from Jan 14th, 2019 to May 22nd, 2022. Patients received dexmedetomidine or normal saline during surgery. 1 year follow-ups were recorded.


Patients were randomized to two groups receiving either dexmedetomidine or normal saline intraoperatively. For patients in the dexmedetomidine group, a loading dose (1 μg/kg over 10 min) of dexmedetomidine was given after induction of anesthesia followed by a continuous infusion (0.5 μg/kg /h) until the end of surgery. For patients in the normal saline group, an equal volume loading dose of 0.9% saline was given after the induction of anesthesia followed by an equal volume continuous infusion until the end of surgery. The primary outcome was early allograft dysfunction. Secondary outcomes included primary graft non-function, acute kidney injury and acute lung injury/ acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Of 330 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 165 were in the dexmedetomidine group (mean [SD] age, 49 [10] years; 117 [70.9%] men), and 165 were in the normal saline group (mean SD age, 49 [9] years; 118 [74%] men). 39 (24.4%) patients in the dexmedetomidine group and 31 (19.4%) in normal saline group developed early allograft dysfunction and the difference was statistically insignificant (P=0.28). Secondary outcomes including primary graft non-function and acute kidney injury was similar between the two groups.


Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine did not reduce early allograft dysfunction rate after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  • Costa Silva A
  • Pina-Vaz T
  • Morgado A
  • Martins-Silva C
  • Antunes-Lopes T
  • et al.
Transplant Direct. 2024 May 17;10(6):e1643 doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001643.

The urinary microbiome, also known as the urobiome, was traditionally considered sterile. However, emerging evidence suggests its presence in the urinary tract. Urobiome dysbiosis has been associated with various urologic conditions, making it a topic of interest also in kidney transplantation. This systematic review examines the evidence of urobiome changes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).


Systematic literature searches in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases.


Of the 770 articles identified, 8 met the inclusion criteria. The urobiome showed reduced diversity in KTRs compared with healthy controls and patients on dialysis. Proteobacteria enrichment was associated with graft stability or spontaneous tolerance in KTRs without immunological events. Kidney interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy were associated with changes in resident urinary microbes and increased pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, KTRs with chronic allograft dysfunction had a higher prevalence of Corynebacterium.


The review highlights the importance of studying the urobiome in KTRs and its potential impact on transplant outcomes. The field remains largely unexplored, and further research is needed to establish consistent study designs and objectives. Future studies could lead to biomarker discovery, personalized therapies, and improved outcomes and graft survival in KTRs.

  • Tian Z
  • Bergmann K
  • Kaufeld J
  • Schmidt-Ott K
  • Melk A
  • et al.
Transplant Direct. 2024 May 17;10(6):e1647 doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001647.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with end stage renal disease undergoing renal replacement is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Dialysis does not completely prevent or correct this abnormality, and the evidence for kidney transplantation (KT) varies. This analysis aims to explore the relationship between KT and LVH.


MEDLINE and Scopus were systematically searched in October 2023. All cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria were included. Outcome was left ventricular mass index (LVMI) changes. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random effects model. Meta-regression was applied to examine the LVMI changes dependent on various covariates. Sensitivity analysis was used to handle outlying or influential studies and address publication bias.


From 7416 records, 46 studies met the inclusion criteria with 4122 included participants in total. Longitudinal studies demonstrated an improvement of LVMI after KT -0.44 g/m2 (-0.60 to -0.28). Blood pressure was identified as a predictor of LVMI change. A younger age at the time of KT and well-controlled anemia were also associated with regression of LVH. In studies longitudinally comparing patients on dialysis and renal transplant recipients, no difference was detected -0.09 g/m2 (-0.33 to 0.16). Meta-regression using changes of systolic blood pressure as a covariate showed an association between higher blood pressure and an increase in LVMI, regardless of the modality of renal replacement treatment.


In conclusion, our results indicated a potential cardiovascular benefit, defined as the regression of LVH, after KT. This benefit was primarily attributed to improved blood pressure control rather than the transplantation itself.

  • Rebafka A
  • Bennett C
  • Dunn C
  • Roche D
  • Hawker C
  • et al.
JBI Evid Synth. 2024 May 17; doi: 10.11124/JBIES-23-00070.

The objective of this review was to identify lung transplant recipients' experiences of and attitudes towards self-management.


Lung transplantation is an established treatment to improve the survival of patients with end-stage lung diseases and has been performed on over 40,000 patients worldwide. The current focus of care for lung transplant recipients is on their long-term management. Patients need to adapt and adhere to complex self-management tasks to prevent complications and to enable them to keep the transplanted graft as long as possible. However, to date, no qualitative systematic review exists that identifies lung transplant recipients' experiences of and attitudes towards self-management.


This review included adults over 18 years of age who had received a lung transplant and were able to perform their self-management tasks independently. All studies that investigated lung transplant recipients' experiences of and attitudes towards self-management in any setting were included in this review. All types of studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research, and feminist research were considered for inclusion. Mixed methods studies were included only when qualitative data could be extracted separately, and if they reported results relating to the phenomena of interest. Studies published in English or German were considered for inclusion in this review.


The search strategy aimed to find published studies from 6 databases from the database inception to March 2022. Methodological quality of studies was independently assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the JBI checklist for qualitative research. A standardized data extraction tool from JBI was used by 2 reviewers for data collection. Meta-aggregation was undertaken to synthesize the data, and the final synthesis of the findings was reached through discussion. Results were graded according to ConQual.


Ten studies with a sample size from 8 to 73 participants from North America and Central/Northern Europe were included in the review. The critical appraisal scores of the included studies varied from 3 to 9 out of 10. A total of 137 findings were extracted and aggregated to form 19 categories and the following 4 aggregated syntheses: i) Changes in routines, beliefs, and sense of responsibility are essential for better adaptation and self-management after lung transplantation; ii) Life after transplantation is characterized by both positive and negative feelings and experiences; iii) Better adjustment and self-management after a lung transplant require dealing with one's own feelings and beliefs; iv) After transplantation, engaging with relatives, friends, medical team and donors is essential to improve experiences and adapt to being a transplant recipient. Based on the ConQual scores, 2 synthesized findings were graded as moderate and 2 as low.


Nuanced emotional, social, relational, and psychological adjustment is required of lung transplant recipients to be able to successfully self-manage. Loved ones and health professionals contribute significantly to this process, but psychosocial or peer support may further facilitate this transition.


A German-language version of the abstract of this review is available as Supplemental Digital Content [].