Selection criteria of solid organ donors in relation to infectious diseases: A Spanish consensus
Transplant Rev (Philadelphia). 2020;34(2):100528
The immunosuppressive treatment that recipients receive from a solid organ transplantation hinders the defensive response to infection. Its transmission from the donor can cause dysfunction or loss of the graft and even death of the recipient if proper preventive measures are not established. This potential risk should be thoroughly evaluated to minimise the risk of infection transmission from donor to recipient, especially with organ transplantation from donors with infections, without increasing graft dysfunction and morbidity and mortality in the recipient. This document aims to review current knowledge about infection screening in potential donors and offer clinical and microbiological recommendations about the use of organs from donors with infection based on available scientific evidence.
Management of dyslipidemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients
Pediatric Nephrology. 2020;02:02
Dyslipidemia after kidney transplantation is a common complication that has historically been underappreciated, especially in pediatric recipients. It is also a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a top cause of morbidity and mortality of transplant patients. While most knowledge about post-transplant dyslipidemia has been generated in adults, recommendations and treatment strategies also exist for children and are presented in this review. Awareness of these applicable guidelines and approaches is required, but not sufficient, for the reliable management of dyslipidemia in our patients, and additional needs and opportunities for comprehensive care in this area (e.g., quality improvement) are outlined.
Acute kidney injury: prediction, prognostication and optimisation for liver transplant
Hepatology International. 2020;03:03
The definition and diagnostic criteria of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis have undergone significant recent changes. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined by a change in serum creatinine of >= 26.4 micro mol/L (0.3 mg/dL) in < 48 h. Its severity is defined by stages. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to < 60 mL/min for more than 3 months. Both AKI and CKD can be related to reduced renal perfusion, the so-called functional renal failure; or due to structural damage to the renal parenchyma. Hemodynamic changes and excess inflammation are the pathophysiological processes that predispose the cirrhotic patient to the development of functional AKI. Events that cause further perturbation of hemodynamics or promote further inflammation such as bacterial infection will precipitate AKI. Management starts by removing potential precipitating factors and replenish the intravascular volume. Albumin is the preferred volume expander as it has multiple properties that can significantly reduce the extent of inflammation as well as improving the intravascular volume. Non-responders to albumin infusion should receive vasoconstrictor therapy such as terlipressin, titrated to patient's blood pressure response, and is effective in approximately 50% of patients. All patients with renal and liver dysfunction should be evaluated for liver transplantation, with renal replacement therapy as a bridge. Guidelines are in place for combined liver and kidney transplants. Future studies on AKI should evaluate the effects of vasoconstrictors on renal function as defined by recent criteria, and to develop biomarkers to identify susceptible patients so to institute treatment early.
ASHP Guidelines on Pharmacy Services in Solid Organ Transplantation
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 2020;77(3):222-232
Evaluation and Care of International Living Kidney Donor Candidates: Strategies for Addressing Common Considerations & Challenges
Clinical Transplantation. 2020;34(3):e13792
End-stage kidney disease patients in the United States may have family members or friends who are not U.S. citizens or residents but are willing to serve as their living kidney donors in the United States ("international donors"). In July 2017, the American Society for Transplantation (AST) Live Donor Community of Practice (LDCOP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of experts in living donation care, including coordinators, social workers, donor advocates, administrators and physicians, to evaluate educational gaps related to the evaluation and care of international donors. The evaluation of the international living donor candidates is a resource intensive process that raises key considerations for assessing risk of exploitation/ inducement, and addressing communication barriers, logistics barriers and access to care in their home country. Through consensus-building discussions, we developed recommendations related to: 1) establishing program guidelines for international donor candidate evaluation and selection; 2) initial screening; 3) logistics planning; 4) comprehensive evaluation; and 5) postdonation care and follow-up. These recommendations are not intended to direct formal policy, but rather as guidance to help programs more efficiently and effectively structure and execute evaluations and care coordination. We also offer recommendations for research and advocacy efforts to help optimize the care of this unique group of living donors.
Liver and Kidney Recipient Selection of HCV-Viremic Donors - Meeting Consensus Report from the 2019 Controversies in Transplantation
The development of multiple highly effective and safe direct-acting antivirals to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) has resulted in greater ease and confidence in managing HCV infection in transplant recipients that in turn, has impacted the solid organ transplant community as well. In the United States, the opioid epidemic has increased the number of overdose deaths with a concomitant increase in younger HCV viremic donors after brain death being identified. At the same time, a decrease in HCV viremic transplant candidates has led to a growing interest in exploring the use of HCV viremic liver and kidney donor allografts in HCV-negative recipients. To date, experience with the use of HCV viremic liver and kidney allografts in HCV-negative recipients is limited to a few small prospective research trials, case series, and case reports. There are also limited data on recipient and donor selection for HCV viremic liver and kidney allografts. In response to this rapidly changing landscape in the United States, experts in the field of viral hepatitis and liver and kidney transplantation convened a meeting to review current data on liver and kidney recipient selection and developed consensus opinions related specifically to recipient and donor selection of HCV viremic liver and kidney allografts.
Durability of Antibody Response Against the Hepatitis B Virus in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Proposed Immunization Guideline From a 3-Year Follow-up Clinical Study
Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2019;6(1):ofy342
Background: Despite the importance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization in kidney transplantation (KT), data are lacking on fluctuations in hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBsAb) levels and optimal levels for KT recipients. Methods: The study consisted of anti-HBsAb-positive recipients aged 18-70 years at the time of the KT. Recipients with anti-HBsAb <100 IU/L received a single booster HBV vaccination, and anti-HBsAb was measured at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-KT. Anti-HBsAb, quantitative HBV deoxyribonucleic acid testing (12 and 24 months post-KT), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (24 months post-KT) were evaluated in recipients with anti-HBsAb >100 IU/L who received a hepatitis B surface antigen positive renal allograft. Results: Seventy-six of 257 (29.6%) KT recipients with anti-HBsAb <100 IU/L at the time of enrollment received a single booster of HBV vaccination. Anti-HBsAb levels increased (>=100 IU/L) 1 and 3 months post-booster dose in 86% and 93% of cases, respectively. Anti-HBsAb levels were >=100 IU/L in 95% of these recipients 6 months post-booster dose. Among 181 (70%) recipients with anti-HBsAb >=100 IU/L without a booster dose, anti-HBsAb gradually decreased after the KT from 588 IU/L at baseline to 440 and 382 IU/L 3 and 6 months post-KT, respectively (P < .01). Conclusions: To ensure optimal immunity against HBV, KT recipients should first be stratified according to their risk of HBV reactivation. Kidney transplantation recipients of renal allografts from HBV nonviremic or viremic donors should be reimmunized when their anti-HBsAb titers are <250 IU/L. A cutoff level of 100 IU/L is recommended in other cases.
Clinical practice guidelines for the provision of renal service in Hong Kong: Potential Kidney Transplant Recipient Wait-listing and Evaluation, Deceased Kidney Donor Evaluation, and Kidney Transplant Postoperative Care
Nephrology. 2019;24 Suppl 1:60-76
The importance of drug safety and tolerability in the development of new immunosuppressive therapy for transplant recipients: The Transplant Therapeutics Consortium's position statement
American Journal of Transplantation. 2019;19(3):625-632
The Transplant Therapeutics Consortium (TTC) is a public-private partnership between the US Food and Drug Administration and the transplantation community including the transplantation societies and members of the biopharmaceutical industry. The TTC was formed to accelerate the process of developing new medical products for transplant patients. The initial goals of this collaboration are the following: (a) To define which aspects of the kidney transplant drug-development process have clear needs for improvement from an industry and regulatory perspective; (b) to define which of the unmet needs in the process could be positively impacted through the development of specific drug-development tools based on available data; and (c) to determine the most appropriate pathway to achieve regulatory acceptance of the proposed process-accelerating tools. The TTC has identified 2 major areas of emphasis: new biomarkers or endpoints for determining the efficacy of new therapies and new tools to assess the safety or tolerability of new therapies. This article presents the rationale and planned approach to develop new tools to assess safety and tolerability of therapies for transplant patients. We also discuss how similar efforts might support the continued development of patient-reported outcome measures in the future.
Intestinal parasites including Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides, Schistosomiasis, and Echinococcus: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13618
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of intestinal parasites in the pre- and post-transplant period. Intestinal parasites are prevalent in the developing regions of the world. With increasing travel to and from endemic regions, changing immigration patterns, and the expansion of transplant medicine in developing countries, they are increasingly recognized as a source of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients. Parasitic infections may be acquired from the donor allograft, from reactivation, or from de novo acquisition post-transplantation. Gastrointestinal multiplex assays have been developed; some of the panels include testing for Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia, and the performance is comparable to conventional methods. A polymerase chain reaction test, not yet widely available, has also been developed to detect Strongyloides in stool samples. New recommendations have been developed to minimize the risk of Strongyloides donor-derived events. Deceased donors with epidemiological risk factors should be screened for Strongyloides and recipients treated if positive as soon as the results are available. New therapeutic agents and studies addressing the optimal treatment regimen for solid-organ transplant recipients are unmet needs.