Optimizing Organ Donation: Expert Opinion from Austria, Germany, Spain and the U.K
Annals of Transplantation. 2020;25:e921727
BACKGROUND Organ donation-rates using deceased donors and organizational approaches to organ donation differ drastically between countries at a similar level of health care as measured by the Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Expert opinions from intensive care nurses, physicians, transplant coordinators and transplant surgeons from Austria, Germany, Spain, and the U.K. were obtained in semi-structured interviews followed by qualitative content analysis. Results were reported back to all interview partners to identify potential controversies and consensus recommendations. RESULTS No controversies could be detected. On a variety of beneficial factors an interprofessional consensus between interview partners could be reached: A) The relevance of standardization of the screening for potential donors, the family approach and training; B) standards and best-practice procedures should be regulated and supervised by state authorities; C) full transparency and the prevention of scandals is essential; D) overburdened intensive care unit (ICU) doctors need to be supported by full-time in-house special nurses who organize donor evaluation, transport logistics and pastoral care, if required; E) public awareness campaigns are helpful; F) a broad public consensus on the concept of donation after brain and cardiac death is essential; G) incentives for the reporting of potential organ donors are inappropriate; H) an opt-out system alone is not sufficient. CONCLUSIONS Expert opinions from different professional backgrounds from different European health care systems reach a broad consensus on the most relevant issues for the improvement of organ donation.
Autoimmune Hepatitis: Highlights for Liver Transplant Providers from the AASLD 2019 Guidelines
Liver Transplantation. 2020;[record in progress]
The AASLD has recently issued updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Following the Institute of Medicine format for creating practice guidelines, a committee of experts selected the important clinical issues to address, conducted systematic reviews of the literature, and rated the quality of the evidence to determine the final recommendations. Below is a synopsis of the recommendations that are most relevant to liver transplantation (LT).
Prophylaxis and treatment in liver transplantation. VII Consensus Document of the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation
Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia. 2020;43(3):169-177
Whilst prophylaxis of hepatitis B is universally accepted after liver transplantation (LT), national recommendations for the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after LT are lacking in Spain. The aim of the VII consensus meeting organised by the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation (SETH) was to set recommendations on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B after LT. The scientific evidence and strength of recommendations was evaluated by using the "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" (GRADE) system. This document describes the recommendations and their level of evidence for: the definition and risk factors for hepatitis B recurrence after LT, monitoring and prophylaxis of hepatitis B recurrence at different periods after LT, treatment of hepatitis B before and after LT, and the prophylaxis of HBV infection by the recipients of LT with hepatitis B core antigen positive donors.
Management of dyslipidemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients
Pediatric Nephrology. 2020;02:02
Dyslipidemia after kidney transplantation is a common complication that has historically been underappreciated, especially in pediatric recipients. It is also a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a top cause of morbidity and mortality of transplant patients. While most knowledge about post-transplant dyslipidemia has been generated in adults, recommendations and treatment strategies also exist for children and are presented in this review. Awareness of these applicable guidelines and approaches is required, but not sufficient, for the reliable management of dyslipidemia in our patients, and additional needs and opportunities for comprehensive care in this area (e.g., quality improvement) are outlined.
ISHLT consensus statement on donor organ acceptability and management in pediatric heart transplantation
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation. 2020;39(4):331-341
The number of potential pediatric heart transplant recipients continues to exceed the number of donors, and consequently the waitlist mortality remains significant. Despite this, around 40% of all donated organs are not used and are discarded. This document (62 authors from 53 institutions in 17 countries) evaluates factors responsible for discarding donor hearts and makes recommendations regarding donor heart acceptance. The aim of this statement is to ensure that no usable donor heart is discarded, waitlist mortality is reduced, and post-transplant survival is not adversely impacted.
RNA respiratory viral infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13511
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of RNA respiratory viral infections in the pre- and post-transplant period. Viruses reviewed include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and coronavirus. Diagnosis is by nucleic acid testing due to improved sensitivity, specificity, broad range of detection of viral pathogens, automatization, and turnaround time. Respiratory viral infections may be associated with acute rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients. The cornerstone of influenza prevention is annual vaccination and in some cases antiviral prophylaxis. Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors and other antivirals is reviewed. Prevention of RSV is limited to prophylaxis with palivizumab in select children. Therapy of RSV upper or lower tract disease is controversial but may include oral or aerosolized ribavirin in some populations. There are no approved vaccines or licensed antivirals for parainfluenza, rhinovirus, hMPV, and coronavirus. Potential management strategies for these viruses are given. Future studies should include prospective trials using contemporary molecular diagnostics to understand the true epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and long-term consequences of respiratory viruses as well as to define preventative and therapeutic measures.
Screening of donors and recipients for infections prior to solid organ transplantation
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 2019;24(4):456-464
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review is a brief overview of current guidelines on screening donors and candidates for bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections prior to solid organ transplantation. The pretransplant period is an important time to evaluate infection exposure risk based on social history as well as to offer vaccinations. RECENT FINDINGS One of the major changes in the past few years has been increased utilization of increased Public Health Service risk, HIV positive, and hepatitis C-positive donors. There has also been increased attention to donor and recipient risks for geographically associated infections, such as endemic fungal infections and flaviviruses. SUMMARY Screening for donors and candidates prior to organ transplantation can identify and address infection risks. Diagnosing infections in a timely manner can help guide treatment and additional testing. Use of necessary prophylactic treatment in organ recipients can prevent reactivation of latent infections and improve posttransplant outcomes.
Live vaccines after pediatric solid organ transplant: Proceedings of a consensus meeting, 2018
Pediatric Transplantation. 2019;23(7):e13571
Growing evidence suggests receipt of live-attenuated viral vaccines after solid organ transplant (SOT) has occurred and is safe and needed due to lapses in herd immunity. A 2-day consortium of experts in infectious diseases, transplantation, vaccinology, and immunology was held with the objective to review evidence and create expert recommendations for clinicians when considering live viral vaccines post-SOT. For consideration of VV and MMR post-transplant, evidence exists only for kidney and liver transplant recipients. For MMR vaccine post-SOT, consider vaccination during outbreak or travel to endemic risk areas. Patients who have received antiproliferative agents (eg. mycophenolate mofetil), T cell-depleting agents, or rituximab; or have persistently elevated EBV viral loads, or are in a state of functional tolerance, should be vaccinated with caution and have a more in-depth evaluation to define benefit of vaccination and net state of immune suppression prior to considering vaccination. MMR and/or VV (not combined MMRV) is considered to be safe in patients who are clinically well, are greater than 1 year after liver or kidney transplant and 2 months after acute rejection episode, can be closely monitored, and meet specific criteria of "low-level" immune suppression as defined in the document.
Clinical practice recommendations for growth hormone treatment in children with chronic kidney disease
Nature Reviews Nephrology. 2019;15(9):577-589
Achieving normal growth is one of the most challenging problems in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) promotes longitudinal growth and likely enables children with CKD and short stature to reach normal adult height. Here, members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (MBD), Dialysis and Transplantation working groups present clinical practice recommendations for the use of GH in children with CKD on dialysis and after renal transplantation. These recommendations have been developed with input from an external advisory group of paediatric endocrinologists, paediatric nephrologists and patient representatives. We recommend that children with stage 3-5 CKD or on dialysis should be candidates for GH therapy if they have persistent growth failure, defined as a height below the third percentile for age and sex and a height velocity below the twenty-fifth percentile, once other potentially treatable risk factors for growth failure have been adequately addressed and provided the child has growth potential. In children who have received a kidney transplant and fulfil the above growth criteria, we recommend initiation of GH therapy 1 year after transplantation if spontaneous catch-up growth does not occur and steroid-free immunosuppression is not a feasible option. GH should be given at dosages of 0.045-0.05 mg/kg per day by daily subcutaneous injections until the patient has reached their final height or until renal transplantation. In addition to providing treatment recommendations, a cost-effectiveness analysis is provided that might help guide decision-making.
Wilson's Disease: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver, the Indian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, and the Movement Disorders Society of India
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hepatology. 2019;9(1):74-98
Clinical practice guidelines for Wilson's disease (WD) have been published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Their focus was on the hepatic aspects of the disease. Recently, a position paper on pediatric WD was published by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. A need was felt to harmonize guidelines for the hepatic, pediatric, and neurological aspects of the disease and contextualize them to the resource-constrained settings. Therefore, experts from national societies from India representing 3 disciplines, hepatology (Indian National Association for Study of the Liver), pediatric hepatology (Indian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition), and neurology (Movement Disorders Society of India) got together to evolve fresh guidelines. A literature search on retrospective and prospective studies of WD using MEDLINE (PubMed) was performed. Members voted on each recommendation, using the nominal voting technique. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to determine the quality of evidence. Questions related to diagnostic tests, scoring system, and its modification to a version suitable for resource-constrained settings were posed. While ceruloplasmin and 24-h urine copper continue to be important, there is little role of serum copper and penicillamine challenge test in the diagnostic algorithm. A new scoring system - Modified Leipzig score has been suggested with extra points being added for family history and serum ceruloplasmin lower than 5 mg/dl. Liver dry copper estimation and penicillamine challenge test have been removed from the scoring system. Differences in pharmacological approach to neurological and hepatic disease and global monitoring scales have been included. Rising bilirubin and worsening encephalopathy are suggested as indicators predicting need for liver transplant but need to be validated. The clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations for a comprehensive management of WD which will be of value to all specialties.