Solid Organ Transplantation in the HIV-Infected Patient: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13499
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the management of transplantation in HIV infected individuals. Transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with HIV and end stage kidney or liver disease. Although less data exist for thoracic organ and pancreas transplantation, it is likely that transplantation is also safe and effective for these recipients as well. Despite what is typically a transient decline in CD4+ T lymphocytes, HIV remains well-controlled and infection risks are similar to those of HIV uninfected transplant recipients. The availability of effective directly active antivirals for the treatment of Hepatitis C is likely to improve outcomes in HIV and HCV co-infected individuals, a population previously noted to have decreased survival. Drug interactions remain an important consideration and integrase inhibitor based regimens are preferred due to the absence of interactions with calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors. Additionally, despite the use of more potent immunosuppression, rejection rates exceed those found in HIV uninfected recipients. Ongoing research evaluating HIV positive organ donors may provide support for utilizing these donors for HIV positive patients in need of transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Candida Infections in Solid Organ Transplantation: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13623
These updated guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Candida infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Candida infections manifest primarily as candidemia and invasive candidiasis and cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are necessary to reduce mortality. For both candidemia and invasive candidiasis, an echinocandin is recommended for initial therapy. However, early transition to oral therapy is encouraged when patients are stable and the organism is susceptible. Candida prophylaxis should be targeted for high risk patients in liver, small bowel and pancreas transplant recipients. Future research should address which patient groups may benefit most from preventative antifungal therapy strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening in Immunosuppressed Women Without HIV Infection
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. 2019;23(2):87-101
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The risk of cervical cancer (CC) among women immunosuppressed for a variety of reasons is well documented in the literature. Although there is improved organ function, quality of life and life expectancy gained through use of immunosuppressant therapy, there may be increased long-term risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer and the need for more intense screening, surveillance, and management. Although guidance for CC screening among HIV-infected women (see Table 1) has been supported by evidence from retrospective and prospective studies, recommendations for CC screening among non-HIV immunosuppressed women remains limited because quality evidence is lacking. Moreover, CC screening guidelines for HIV-infected women have changed because better treatments evolved and resulted in longer life expectancy.The objective of this report was to summarize current knowledge of CC, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in non-HIV immunocompromised women to determine best practices for CC surveillance in this population and provide recommendations for screening. We evaluated those with solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and a number of autoimmune diseases.A panel of health care professionals involved in CC research and care was assembled to review and discuss existing literature on the subject and come to conclusions about screening based on available evidence and expert opinion. Literature searches were performed using key words such as CC, cervical dysplasia/squamous intraepithelial lesion, HPV, and type of immunosuppression resulting in an initial group of 346 articles. Additional publications were identified from review of citations in these articles. All generated abstracts were reviewed to identify relevant articles. Articles published within 10 years were considered priority for review. Reviews of the literature were summarized with relevant statistical comparisons. Recommendations for screening generated from each group were largely based on expert opinion. Adherence to screening, health benefits and risks, and available clinical expertise were all considered in formulating the recommendations to the degree that information was available. RESULTS Solid Organ Transplant: Evidence specific for renal, heart/lung, liver, and pancreas transplants show a consistent increase in risk of cervical neoplasia and invasive CC, demonstrating the importance of long-term surveillance and treatment. Reports demonstrate continued risk long after transplantation, emphasizing the need for screening throughout a woman's lifetime.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Although there is some evidence for an increase in CC in large cohort studies of these patients, conflicting results may reflect that many patients did not survive long enough to evaluate the incidence of slow-growing or delayed-onset cancers. Furthermore, history of cervical screening or previous hysterectomy was not included in registry study analysis, possibly leading to underestimation of CC incidence rates.Genital or chronic graft versus host disease is associated with an increase in high-grade cervical neoplasia and posttransplant HPV positivity.Inflammatory Bowel Disease: There is no strong evidence to support that inflammatory bowel disease alone increases cervical neoplasia or cancer risk. In contrast, immunosuppressant therapy does seem to increase the risk, although results of observational studies are conflicting regarding which type of immunosuppressant medication increases risk. Moreover, misclassification of cases may underestimate CC risk in this population. Recently published preventive care guidelines for women with inflammatory bowel disease taking immunosuppressive therapy recommend a need for continued long-term CC screening.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: The risk of cervical high-grade neoplasia and cancer was higher among women with systemic lupus erythematosus than those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although studies were limited by size, inclusion of women with low-grade neoplasia in main outcomes, and variability of disease severity or exposure to immunosuppressants. In studies designed to look specifically at immunosuppressant use, however, there did seem to be an increase in risk, identified mostly in women with RA. Although the strength of the evidence is limited, the increase in risk is consistent across studies.Type 1 DM: There is a paucity of evidence-based reports associating type 1 DM with an increased risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer. RECOMMENDATIONS The panel proposed that CC screening guidelines for non-HIV immunocompromised women follow either the (1) guidelines for the general population or (2) current center for disease control guidelines for HIV-infected women. The following are the summaries for each group reviewed, and more details are noted in accompanying table:Solid Organ Transplant: The transplant population reflects a greater risk of CC than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening and surveillance.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: These women have a greater risk of CC than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening. A new diagnosis of genital or chronic graft versus host disease in a woman post-stem cell transplant results in a greater risk of CC than in the general population and should result in more intensive screening and surveillance.Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Women with inflammatory bowel disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs are at greater risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer than the general population and guidelines for HIV-infected women are a reasonable approach for screening and surveillance. Those women with inflammatory bowel disease not on immunosuppressive therapy are not at an increased risk and should follow screening guidelines for the general population.Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: All women with systemic lupus erythematosus, whether on immunosuppressant therapy or not and those women with RA on immunosuppressant therapy have a greater risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer than the general population and should follow CC screening guidelines for HIV-infected women. Women with RA not on immunosuppressant therapy should follow CC screening guidelines for the general population.Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Because of a lack of evidence of increased risk of cervical neoplasia and cancer among women with type 1 DM, these women should follow the screening guidelines for the general population.
Evidence-based practice: Guidance for using everolimus in combination with low-exposure calcineurin inhibitors as initial immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients
Transplant Rev (Philadelphia). 2019;[record in progress]
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus, in combination with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), has been demonstrated in clinical trials to have comparable efficacy in low-to-moderate immunological risk kidney transplant recipients to the Standard of Care, mycophenolic acid (MPA) in combination with standard-exposure CNI. Current treatment guidelines consider mTOR inhibitors to be a second-line therapy in the majority of cases; however, given that everolimus-based regimens are associated with a reduced rate of viral infections after transplantation, their wider use could have great benefits for kidney transplant patients. In this evidence-based practice guideline, we consider the de novo use of everolimus in kidney transplant recipients. The main outcomes of our consideration of the available evidence are that: 1. Everolimus, in combination with reduced-exposure CNI and low dose steroids, is a suitable regimen for the prophylaxis of kidney transplant rejection in the majority of low-to-moderate immunological risk adult patients, with individualized management; 2. Induction with either basiliximab or rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin is an effective therapy for kidney transplant recipients when initiating an everolimus-based, reduced-exposure CNI regimen; and 3. An individualized approach should be adopted when managing kidney transplant recipients on everolimus-based therapy.
Intra-abdominal infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13595
This new guideline from the AST IDCOP reviews intra-abdominal infections (IAI), which cause substantial morbidity and mortality among abdominal SOT recipients. Each transplant type carries unique risks for IAI, though peritonitis occurs in all abdominal transplant recipients. Biliary infections, bilomas, and intraabdominal and intrahepatic abscesses are common after liver transplantation and are associated with the type of biliary anastomosis, the presence of vascular thrombosis or ischemia, and biliary leaks or strictures. IAI after kidney transplantation include renal and perinephric abscesses and graft-site candidiasis, which is uncommon but may require allograft nephrectomy. Among pancreas transplant recipients, duodenal anastomotic leaks can have catastrophic consequences, and polymicrobial abscesses can lead to graft loss and death. Intestinal transplant recipients are at the highest risk for sepsis, infection due to multidrug-resistant organisms, and death from IAI, as the transplanted intestine is a contaminated, highly immunological, pathogen-rich organ. Source control and antibiotics are the cornerstone of the management of IAIs. Empiric antimicrobial regimens should be tailored to local susceptibility patterns and pathogens which the patient is known to be colonized, with subsequent optimization once the results of cultures are reported. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Surgical site infections: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice
Clinical Transplantation. 2019;33(9):e13589
These guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) in solid organ transplantation. SSIs are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in SOT recipients. Depending on the organ transplanted, SSIs occur in 3%-53% of patients, with the highest rates observed in small bowel/multivisceral, liver, and pancreas transplant recipients. These infections are classified by increasing invasiveness as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space SSIs. The spectrum of organisms implicated in SSIs in SOT recipients is more diverse than the general population due to other important factors such as the underlying end-stage organ failure, immunosuppression, prolonged hospitalizations, organ transportation/preservation, and previous exposures to antibiotics in donors and recipients that could predispose to infections with multidrug-resistant organisms. In this guideline, we describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, potential pathogens, and management. We also provide recommendations for the selection, dosing, and duration of peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis to minimize post-operative SSIs.
Taiwan consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2019;118(1 Pt 1):7-38
The experts of Taiwan Association for the Study of Liver (TASL) have actively participated and led the guidelines on hepatitis B virus (HBV) management by Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) which is the first international association for the study of liver to publish the statement on HBV management before. However, there are more and more new data on the natural history and treatment of HBV infection in the past decade. These include new application of an old biomarker (quantitative HBsAg), clinical significance of HBV genotype and naturally occurring mutations, the role of non-invasive examination in evaluating severity of hepatic fibrosis, clinical significance of outcome calculators, new drug or new combination strategies towards more effective therapy and organ transplantation including liver and non-liver transplantation. It is time to publish the guidelines on HBV management of Taiwan. Hence, TASL have conducted an expert meeting to review, to discuss and to debate the relevant literatures, followed by draft the manuscript of HBV management guidelines and recommendations. The guidelines include general management, indications for fibrosis assessment, time to start or stop drug therapy, choice of drug to initiate therapy, when and how to monitor the patients during and after stopping drug therapy. Recommendations on the therapy of patients in special circumstances, including women in childbearing age, patients with antiviral drug resistance, concurrent viral infection, hepatic decompensation, patient receiving immune suppression or chemotherapy and patients in the setting of liver transplantation and hepatocellular carcinoma, are also included.
Pancreas Transplantation: Organ Allocation [POL199/8]
Pancreas transplantation: Patient selection [POL185/5]
New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology
Transplant International. 2016;29(7):749-59
In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation. Copyright © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.