Transplant Library

COVID-19 Publications

The Transplant Library provides a comprehensive overview of free COVID-19 information relevant for transplantation professionals.
1,581 results
  • Benotmane I
  • Bruel T
  • Planas D
  • Fafi-Kremer S
  • Schwartz O
  • et al.
Kidney Int. 2022 May;101(5):1073-1076 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2022.02.011.
  • Mitchell J
  • Chiang TP
  • Alejo JL
  • Chang A
  • Abedon AT
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2022 May 1;106(5):e269-e270 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004090.
  • Testino G
  • Vignoli T
  • Patussi V
  • Allosio P
  • Amendola MF
  • et al.
Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Jun;67(6):1975-1986 doi: 10.1007/s10620-021-07006-1.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), firstly reported in China last November 2019, became a global pandemic. It has been shown that periods of isolation may induce a spike in alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition, alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most common consequence of excessive alcohol consumption worldwide. Moreover, liver impairment has also been reported as a common manifestation of COVID-19.


The aim of our position paper was to consider some critical issues regarding the management of ALD in patients with AUD in the era of COVID-19.


A panel of experts of the Italian Society of Alcohology (SIA) met via "conference calls" during the lockdown period to draft the SIA's criteria for the management of ALD in patients with COVID-19 as follows: (a) liver injury in patients with ALD and COVID-19 infection; (b) toxicity to the liver of the drugs currently tested to treat COVID-19 and the pharmacological interaction between medications used to treat AUD and to treat COVID-19; (c) reorganization of the management of compensated and decompensated ALD and liver transplantation in the COVID-19 era.


The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly carried us toward a new governance scenario of AUD and ALD which necessarily requires an in-depth review of the management of these diseases with a new safe approach (management of out-patients and in-patients following new rules of safety, telemedicine, telehealth, call meetings with clinicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers) without losing the therapeutic efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment.

  • Hippen BE
  • Axelrod DA
  • Maher K
  • Li R
  • Kumar D
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2022 Jun;22(6):1705-1713 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16995.

An electronic survey canvassing current policies of transplant centers regarding a COVID-19 vaccine mandate for transplant candidates and living donors was distributed to clinicians at US solid organ transplant centers performing transplants from October 14, 2021-November 15, 2021. Responses were received from staff at 141 unique transplant centers. These respondents represented 56.4% of US transplant centers, and responding centers performed 78.5% of kidney transplants and 82.4% of liver transplants in the year prior to survey administration. Only 35.7% of centers reported implementing a vaccine mandate, while 60.7% reported that vaccination was not required. A minority (42%) of responding centers with a vaccine mandate for transplant candidates also mandated vaccination for living organ donors. Centers with a vaccine mandate most frequently cited clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of pre-transplant vaccination (82%) and stewardship obligations to ensure organs were transplanted into the lowest risk patients (64%). Centers without a vaccine mandate cited a variety of reasons including administrative, equity, and legal considerations for their decision. Transplant centers in the United States exhibit significant heterogeneity in COVID-19 vaccination mandate policies for transplant candidates. While all centers encourage vaccination, most centers have not mandated COVID-19 vaccination for candidates and living donors, citing administrative opposition, legal prohibitions, and concern about equity in access to transplants.

  • Giannis D
  • Ziogas IA
  • Esagian SM
  • Matenoglou E
  • Moris D
Exp Clin Transplant. 2022 Jul;20(7):706-707 doi: 10.6002/ect.2020.0179.
  • Caballero-Marcos A
  • Citores MJ
  • Alonso-Fernández R
  • Rodríguez-Perálvarez M
  • Valerio M
  • et al.
Liver Transpl. 2022 Jun;28(6):1039-1050 doi: 10.1002/lt.26389.

Long-term humoral immunity and its protective role in liver transplantation (LT) patients have not been elucidated. We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the persistence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in LT recipients 12 months after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 65 LT recipients were matched with 65 nontransplanted patients by a propensity score including variables with recognized impact on COVID-19. LT recipients showed a lower prevalence of anti-nucleocapsid (27.7% versus 49.2%; P = 0.02) and anti-spike IgG antibodies (88.2% versus 100.0%; P = 0.02) at 12 months. Lower index values of anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies were also observed in transplantation patients 1 year after COVID-19 (median, 0.49 [interquartile range, 0.15-1.40] versus 1.36 [interquartile range, 0.53-2.91]; P < 0.001). Vaccinated LT recipients showed higher antibody levels compared with unvaccinated patients (P < 0.001); antibody levels reached after vaccination were comparable to those observed in nontransplanted individuals (P = 0.70). In LT patients, a longer interval since transplantation (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.20) was independently associated with persistence of anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies 1 year after infection. In conclusion, compared with nontransplanted patients, LT recipients show a lower long-term persistence of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. However, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination after COVID-19 in LT patients achieves a significant increase in antibody levels, comparable to that of nontransplanted patients.

  • Medina-Pestana J
  • Cristelli MP
  • Foresto RD
  • Tedesco-Silva H
  • Requião-Moura LR
Transplantation. 2022 May 1;106(5):908-910 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004086.
  • Dorfman L
  • Nassar R
  • Rozenfeld Bar-Lev M
  • Shafir M
  • Oseran I
  • et al.
Pediatr Transplant. 2022 Jun;26(4):e14250 doi: 10.1111/petr.14250.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected medical care worldwide. Thus, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric LT recipients.


A cross-sectional study based on a structured internet or telephone survey was conducted among pediatric LT recipients. Survey results were compared with results of a survey conducted among pediatric patients with IBD.


Seventy-six pediatric LT patients participated in the study. Of them, 58 (76.3%) reported fear of severe COVID-19 infection due to LT or LT-associated medications. Half of the patients reported needing emotional support. Most patients (51, 67.1%) reported strictly following official guidance, while more stringent protective measures were taken by 64 (84.2%) patients. None of the patients discontinued their medications due to COVID-19. Compared to pediatric patients with IBD, a higher proportion of pediatric LT recipients reported fears of contracting severe COVID-19 infection due to their illness or medications (45, 59.2% vs. 110, 45.1%).


Among pediatric LT recipients a higher proportion reported fear of severe COVID-19 infection, implemented additional protective measures and expressed a need for emotional support, compared to patients with IBD. Medical teams should provide adequate information and offer a support system for this vulnerable population.

  • Colombo C
  • Cipolli M
  • Daccò V
  • Medino P
  • Alghisi F
  • et al.
Infection. 2022 Jun;50(3):671-679 doi: 10.1007/s15010-021-01737-z.

To describe the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19.


We conducted a prospective study within the Italian CF Society. CF centers collected baseline and follow-up data of patients with virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and June 2021. Odds ratios (ORs) for severe SARS-CoV-2 (as defined by hospital admission) were estimated by logistic regression models.


The study included 236 patients with positive molecular test for SARS-CoV-2. Six patients died, 43 patients were admitted to hospital, 4 admitted to intensive care unit. Pancreatic insufficiency was associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.52; 10.8). After adjusting for age and pancreatic insufficiency, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVp) < 40% (OR 4.54, 95% CI 1.56; 13.2), oxygen therapy (OR 12.3, 95% CI 2.91-51.7), underweight (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.12; 7.57), organ transplantation (OR 7.31, 95% CI 2.59; 20.7), diabetes (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.23; 5.80) and liver disease (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.77; 7.59) were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, while use of dornase alfa was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.88). No significant changes were observed in FEVp from baseline to a median follow-up of 2 months (median difference: 0, interquartile range: - 4; 5, P = 0.62).


Clinical features indicative of severe form of CF are associated with increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. SARS-CoV-2 infected patients do not experience a deterioration of respiratory function.

  • Joerns J
  • Bollineni S
  • Mahan LD
  • Mohanka MR
  • Lawrence A
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2022 May 1;106(5):e271-e274 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004089.